The article analyses the evolution of the meaning of the expression "water governance", recalling the differences between the salient aspects of past decades and those of our times.In addition to the traditional aspects of the management and use of water as a resource for human needs and activities and the defense of the territory from floods, for some years now, new issues have been added to the traditional aspects of the ecological status, pollution and hydromorphological and habitat integrity of different water bodies.Natural and man-made causes, such as climate change and soil consumption, contribute to increasing the criticality of man's relationship with water. The multiple new pathways introduced by the European Directives will make it possible to adequately address the coming decades.In this regard, the article retraces the regulatory evolution introduced in the last three years (2018-2020) in Italy in the field of water resources and hydro-geological structure, underlining a clear lack of uniformity of guidelines and methods and, above all, a lack of compliance with the general framework law (the Consolidation Act 152), when it confirmed the instrument of the Basin Plan (of which the Community Management Plans are excerpts), establishing that the implementation of the measures contained in it must take place through the Three-year Intervention Programmes.From this emerges the need for a new legislative reform that reorganizes the functions and competences of the different actors involved and revises the value, the aims, the contents and the implementation of the Basin Plan.

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